Category Archives: INTERNET

about internet

BlockChain Technology – The Coolest Innovation

The coolest innovation of the decade is here- The Block-chain Technology

What is the block-chain?
Block-  A block is kind of a box which contains some data.
Blockchain – A blockchain contains n no of blocks which are connected to each other via a chain.
Blockchain Technology– This technology is based on cryptography and growing  as a recent advancement in the field of cryptocurrencies like Bitcoins, where it is meant to transfer the data in the form of information which is linked and secured inside these blocks using some cryptographic techniques,the information is sent from a sender to a receiver over the super secured chained network on the internet.

blockchain
“Everything will be tokenized and connected by a blockchain one day.”
– Fred Ehrsam
(An American Businessman)

BLOCKCHAIN-  the engine of the new token economy

It is a public electronic ledger – similar to a relational database – that can be openly shared among disparate users and that creates an unchangeable record of their transactions, each one time-stamped and linked to the previous one. Each digital record or transaction in the thread is called a block (hence the name), and it allows either an open or controlled set of users to participate in the electronic ledger. Each block is linked to a specific participant hence, is the more efficient way to share information between open and private networks.

HOW MUCH SECURE?

 In a ledge of transactions an, each page forms a block.That block has an impact on the next block or page through cryptographic hashing.that is, when a new block is completed it creates a unique secure code, which ties into the next page or block creating a chain of blocks, or blockchain.

It was Originally devised for the digital currency, Bitcoin, the tech community is now finding other potential uses for the technology.

The Blockchain is the future of storing data in servers.

WHAT ARE NETWORK TOPOLOGIES?

Topology

A network topology defines the way in which the computers, printers and other devices are connected.The topology plays an important role in computer networks

Physical vs logical topologies

A physical topology is how they are actually connected with wires and cables whereas a logical topology is how devices appear to be connected to the user.

Types of Topologies

Bus Topology-In this the devices are connected by a single cable which runs throughout the network.

Advantages

  • It works well for small networks
  • Use less cable than other physical topologies
  • easy to add new networks
  • inexpensive to install

Disadvantage

  • if backbone breaks the whole network is down
  • only limited no of devices can be included
  • sharing the same cable slows down the access time
  • difficult to isolate the problem

Ring Topology-In these devices are connected in a form of ring or circle.In this data flows in ring from device to device

Types

  • Single ring-Date flows only in one direction either clockwise or anticlockwise
  • Dual ring-Data flows in two directions

Advantages

  • There is no collision
  • Data packets can be travel at high speed
  • no terminations are needed
  • it is easier to locate problems with device or cable

Disadvantage

  • requires more cable than bus network
  • a break in the cable will bring down many devices
  • when adding new devices to ring, all devices are suspended from using the network

Star topology-In this network device are connected in a star shape.In this, there is the central hub to which many devices are connected.

Advantage

  • easy to add more devices to the network
  • The failure of one cable will not  break down the entire network
  • The hub provides centralized management
  • it is easy to find device and cable problem

Disadvantage

  • The failure of one central hub breaks down the entire network
  • require more media than a ring or bus network
  • cost of installation and equipment are higher than for most of the bus networks

Mesh topology– In this each device is connected to every other device.

Advantage

  • A mesh network offers improved fault tolerance if part of system goes down

Disadvantage

  • expensive and difficult to install
  • difficult to manage
  • difficult to troubleshoot

Hybrid topology– When two or more topologies are combined in a single network it is known as hybrid topology

 

 

 

WHAT IS PING IN COMPUTER NETWORKS?

Ping

Ping is a protocol for checking of latency between two networks

Latency

It is response time or time required in networks to communicate with each other

Basically, a device sends data packets to server or another device and receives back the data packets

It is time taken for a data packet to travel round trip

Uses

  • Ping is used in checking internet speed test
  • used to check the speed of data transfer in networks
  • can be helpful for playing online game ping time should be minimum in case of online gaming
  • for an instant response from a website ping time should be minimum but in case of downloading ping does not matter much

How to check PING time in windows

  • run start and type cmd in the search bar
  • open command prompt and type PING<space>Website name
  • for example PING teachoutlet.com

 

 

HTTP VS HTTPS-ONLINE SECURITY ?

SECURITY IN INTERNET ?

HTTP-Hypertext Transfer Protocol

These are the set of rules used for data communication over world wide web.Whenever you open a website on the internet with HTTP the data sends and receives between browser and server is only possible through the HTTP.But the problem arises that the connection between the user browser and the server is open and link up is in plain text.It means the hackers can attack your website easily and they can trace what work are you doing on the website.But the main problem arises when the sensitive information like bank details and important password are entered in the HTTP website.The packets can be traced easily by hackers.

HTTPS-Hypertext transfer protocol secure

In this, the connection between a web browser and a web server is in the encrypted format and a third party can not detect work you were doing on the website as the data is in encrypted form instead of plain text.All popular website use HTTPS.

HOW TO GET HTTPS IN YOUR WEBSITE

You need to apply for SSL(Secure sockets layer) certificate.And when you get this certificate by paying a certain amount then you need to install that certificate to your web server.

 

WHO OWNS THE INTERNET?

WHO OWNS THE INTERNET

ISP(Internet Service Provided) are divided into 3 categories

  • Tier one-These are the companies which spread cables underwater with there own funds.Examples of tier one are companies are :AT&T,NTT DoCoMo,Verizon Wireless.
  • Tier two- These are the companies which have  network spread over a national scale.Examples are:BSNL,Airtel,Reliance
  • Tier three- These are companies under the Tier one and two which provide internet on a small region or state.Examples are:connect,spectranet,hathway.

Main owners are Tier one companies as they don’t pay to anyone

 

SECTIONS OF INTERNET

INTERNET TYPES


Internet is divided into 3 sections

Surface web

  • This is the normal internet we use.Almost all internet users this internet.
  • It can be accessed without permission from any part of the world.
  • All google searches are a part of surface web.
  • It is publicly available.
  • surface web is only 5 percent of total internet.

Deep web

  • online cloud storage comes under deep web eg-google drive
  • All databases stored in servers are part of deep web
  • Not indexed in  search engines
  • Require specific URL and permission to access the website
  • Not publicly available till user shares the details
  • 94 percent of internet is deep web

Dark Web

  • Dark web is illegal to use
  • All illegal things like drugs,arms trading etc done on dark web
  • Not indexed in  search engines
  • Require a special browser like TOR
  • Don’t use dark web as it is completely illegal

WHAT IS VPN? BEST VPN

VPN(VIRTUAL PRIVATE NETWORK)

VPN is a virtual network.Through VPN we can make a remote connection using the VPN server.

USES OF VPN

  • Make our connection point to point that is make connection secure and encrypted
  • used to unblock various website which are blocked by some agencies or ISP in your region
  • Can used to change location by tunneling protocol.

HOW TO GET A VPN

You can get VPN softwares easily for free as a mobile application or computer application on different platform.some of free Best VPN services are:

  • Betternet
  • Hotspot shield
  • Speedvpn
  • Psiphon
  • Tor